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Tutorial: Building AI-powered apps with LangChain.js

Artificial Intelligence (AI) has become an integral part of modern development, empowering us to create applications that enhance the quality of human life. To expedite this process, leveraging cutting-edge technologies is crucial.

LangChain is a framework for developing applications powered by large language models. It enables applications that:

  • Are context-aware: connect a language model to sources of context (prompt instructions, few shot examples, content to ground its response in, etc.)
  • Reason: rely on a language model to reason (about how to answer based on provided context, what actions to take, etc.)

LangChain collaborates seamlessly with various Large Language Models (LLMs), including OpenAI’s GPT, HuggingFace, and more.

In this tutorial, we’ll explore LangChain.js, a comprehensive framework streamlining the creation of AI-powered applications by consolidating essential components.

Follow this step-by-step tutorial to build an emoji explainer app with the help of LangChain.js.

Building an emoji explainer app

This app will analyze the emotions behind a given emoji or series of emojis, providing insightful interpretations.


  1. Node.js: Ensure you have Node.js installed on your machine. If not, download it here.
  2. API Key: Obtain an API key from your preferred LLM. In this example, I’ll use OpenAI. Follow this guide to create an OpenAI API key.

Getting started

  • Open your preferred folder in the code editor (I’ll be using VS Code editor), then run the following commands in the terminal.
npm init -y
npm i langchain dotenv

The first command npm init -y will generate a package.json file. The second command npm i langchain dotenv will install the required dependencies.

  • Edit the generated package.json file by adding a “type” property with the value “module” to indicate ECMAScript modules (ESM):
"type": "module"
  • Create two new files in the project folder: index.js (to house the code) and .env (to store the API key).
  • In the .env file, add your API key:
  • In the index.js file, import the necessary dependencies and set up the app:
// Import dependencies
import { OpenAI } from "langchain/llms/openai";
import { PromptTemplate } from "langchain/prompts";
import { LLMChain } from "langchain/chains";
import * as dotenv from "dotenv";

// Define the template for LLM instructions
const template = `... (Your detailed template here) ...`;

// Create a prompt template
const promptTemplate = new PromptTemplate({
  inputVariables: ["emojis"],

// Create an OpenAI model with a temperature of 0.5
const openAIModel = new OpenAI({
  temperature: 0.5,

// Combine the LLM with the prompt template using a chain
const llmChain = new LLMChain({
  llm: openAIModel,
  prompt: promptTemplate,

// Call the chain with the emojis to be explained
const result = await{
  emojis: "😂🤣",

// Log the result to the console
  • In the end, run the app in the terminal by the following command:
node index.js

You will see a result in the console, providing an interpretation of the inputted emojis.

Wrap up!

Langchain.js simplifies the development of AI-powered applications, making it accessible to JavaScript developers as well. Feel free to explore and ask any questions in the comments—I’ll be quick to respond.

Guide to Effective Prompt Engineering for ChatGPT and LLM Responses

A “prompt” refers to the input provided to the large language model (LLM) to generate a desired output. The prompt consists of a set of instructions, queries, or context that guides the LLM in producing a response. The importance of the prompt lies in its ability to influence the output generated by the model.

Prompt engineering is a critical skill in maximizing the potential of large language models (LLMs) like ChatGPT, Bard, Claude, etc. This comprehensive guide provides insights into crafting effective prompts, offering valuable techniques for developers, AI enthusiasts, and anyone keen on enhancing interactions with LLMs.

Prompt Engineering

Prompt engineering is the strategic creation of prompts to optimize interactions between humans and AI. It ensures that the AI produces desired outcomes by leveraging language nuances, understanding AI capabilities, and structuring prompts effectively.

As AI continues to advance, prompt engineering becomes crucial for controlling AI outputs. This control allows users to shape AI responses to be informative, creative, and aligned with specific goals.

Now let’s discuss the best practices and techniques necessary for effective prompt design:

Basics of AI and Linguistics

Gain a foundational understanding of key AI concepts such as machine learning and the significance of vast training data. This knowledge is essential for comprehending how AI processes information and hence leads to more clear prompts.

Similarly, delving into linguistics emphasizes the importance of understanding language structure and meaning. This knowledge forms the bedrock for crafting prompts that effectively resonate with the AI.

Clarity and Specificity

Crafting prompts with clear instructions and specific details is paramount. It ensures that the AI understands user intent accurately, reducing the chances of generating ambiguous or irrelevant responses.

Clearly define the desired information or action in your prompt. Avoid vague language and provide specific parameters for the AI to follow. For example, instead of asking, “Tell me about cars,” you could prompt, “Provide a detailed summary of electric cars’ environmental impact.”

Persona Adoption

Tailoring prompts with a specific persona in mind is crucial for ensuring that the AI responses align with the intended audience or context. This practice helps in generating more relatable and contextually appropriate content.

Consider the target audience or context for your prompt. If you’re simulating a conversation with a historical figure, frame your prompts as if you were interacting with that individual. This helps in obtaining responses that are consistent with the chosen persona.

Iterative Prompting

Refining prompts based on AI responses through iterative prompting is key to achieving desired outcomes. It allows for continuous improvement by learning from previous interactions and adjusting prompts accordingly.

After receiving an initial response, analyze it for accuracy and relevance. If the AI output doesn’t meet expectations, refine and rephrase the prompt for better clarity. Repeat this process iteratively until the desired response is achieved, ensuring a dynamic and evolving interaction.

Avoiding Bias

Steering clear of leading prompts that unintentionally influence AI responses is essential for promoting fairness and mitigating bias. Bias in prompts can result in skewed or inaccurate information, impacting the reliability of AI-generated content.

Review prompts for any language that may carry implicit bias. Ensure neutrality in phrasing to avoid steering the AI toward specific viewpoints. Additionally, be aware of potential bias in the training data and take steps to counteract it in your prompt design.

Scope Limitation

Breaking down broad topics into smaller, focused prompts enhances the precision of AI outputs. This approach prevents the AI from becoming overwhelmed with vague or complex queries, leading to more accurate and relevant responses.

Instead of asking a broad question, narrow down your focus. For instance, if you’re interested in the history of technology, you might start by prompting, “Provide an overview of the evolution of smartphones,” before delving into more specific inquiries. This step-by-step approach ensures detailed and accurate responses.

Zero-shot and Few-shot Prompting

Zero-shot and few-shot prompting are advanced techniques that extend the capabilities of prompt engineering. In zero-shot prompting, the model is tasked with generating a response without any specific examples in the prompt. Few-shot prompting involves providing a limited number of examples for the model to understand the desired context.

These techniques enable a broader range of interactions with the AI. Zero-shot prompting allows for more open-ended queries, while few-shot prompting lets you guide the AI’s understanding with a minimal set of examples.

For example, in zero-shot prompting, you might ask the AI to generate a creative story without providing any initial context. In few-shot prompting, you could give the model a couple of examples to guide its understanding before posing a question.

Text Embedding

Text embedding involves representing words or phrases in a continuous vector space, capturing semantic relationships. This advanced technique enhances the model’s understanding of context and meaning, allowing for more nuanced and context-aware responses.

Text embedding facilitates a deeper understanding of language nuances and relationships, leading to more coherent and contextually relevant responses. It allows the model to grasp the subtle nuances in language that may be challenging with traditional prompt structures.

For instance, utilizing text embedding in prompts can help the AI understand the contextual relationship between words and phrases, leading to more accurate responses in tasks like sentiment analysis or content summarization.

AI Hallucinations

AI hallucinations refer to instances where the model generates responses that are imaginative or creative but might not be based on real-world information. This phenomenon showcases the model’s ability to extrapolate and generate content beyond its training data, providing a glimpse into the potential future capabilities of prompt engineering.

While AI hallucinations might not always produce factual information, they demonstrate the model’s creative potential. This can be valuable in scenarios where creative or speculative responses are desired.

For example, prompting the AI with a futuristic scenario and observing its hallucinatory responses can inspire creative thinking or generate imaginative content, offering a preview of the evolving capabilities in prompt engineering.

Wrap Up!

Experimenting with the techniques penned down in this guide, opens new avenues for interactions with LLMs, pushing the boundaries of what is possible in AI-driven conversations. As these methods continue to develop, they promise to bring about even more sophisticated and nuanced AI responses, shaping the future of prompt engineering.

Advanced techniques like zero-shot and few-shot prompting, text embedding, and AI hallucinations showcase the evolving landscape of prompt engineering. Whether you’re a beginner or an experienced developer, applying the principles of prompt engineering outlined in this guide will enhance your ability to craft effective prompts and unlock the full potential of large language models like ChatGPT.


Guide to Large Language Models (LLMs)

Large language models (LLMs) are a big deal in artificial intelligence. They use huge amounts of data to understand and create text that looks like it’s written by a person. These models are part of the broader field of natural language processing (NLP) and are trained on vast amounts of textual data to learn patterns, relationships, and nuances of language. The term “large” refers to the scale of these models, which are characterized by having a massive number of parameters.

This guide explores their wide-ranging applications for developers and others, key characteristics, and both the benefits and limitations associated with their use. In the end, you will also learn about the importance of effective prompts for better results. So, without further ado let’s dive in.

Key Characteristics of Large Language Models (LLMs):

1- Large Size

LLMs are trained on massive datasets of text and code, often exceeding billions or even trillions of words. This vast data exposure enables them to capture complex linguistic patterns and relationships.

2- Highly Adaptive

LLMs are typically pre-trained on large datasets in an unsupervised manner, where the model learns the intricacies of language. After pre-training, the models can be fine-tuned on specific tasks or domains to enhance performance.

3- Contextual Comprehension

LLMs demonstrate proficiency in contextual understanding, enabling them to take into account the context of a word or phrase within a sentence to deduce its meaning. This heightened awareness of context empowers them to produce responses that are both coherent and contextually appropriate.

4- Versatility

LLMs demonstrate versatility and proficiency in an extensive array of functions, such as:

  • Generating text: Crafting human-like text in various styles, such as poems, code, scripts, musical compositions, emails, letters, and more.
  • Translation: Precisely translating text across languages, overcoming language barriers.
  • Answering questions: Supplying informative and pertinent responses to questions posed naturally.
  • Summarization: Condensing lengthy text into meaningful summaries.
  • Dialogue generation: Participating in authentic and natural conversations, emulating human interaction.

5- Continuous Improvement

Characterized by continuous improvement, LLMs undergo ongoing development, resulting in constant enhancements in performance. The iterative nature of their evolution is driven by exposure to a growing volume of data and the utilization of increased computing power, collectively contributing to a relentless pursuit of improvement over time.

LLMs helping Developers:

LLMs help developers by enhancing the coding process by offering assistance in code generation, summarization, bug detection, documentation, refactoring, educational support, natural language interactions, and code translation. Their capabilities contribute to increased productivity and efficiency in software development.

Let’s discuss them one by one:

  • Code Generation: LLMs can generate code snippets based on natural language descriptions or requirements. Developers can provide high-level instructions, and LLMs can assist in translating these into functional code segments, saving time and effort.
  • Code Summarization: LLMs can be used to summarize and explain existing code. This is particularly helpful for understanding complex codebases, as LLMs can provide concise and human-readable explanations for different sections of code.
  • Bug Detection and Correction: LLMs can aid in detecting and even suggesting corrections for code bugs. By analyzing code snippets, LLMs can identify common programming errors and recommend fixes, contributing to improved code quality.
  • Documentation Assistance: LLMs can assist in writing code documentation. Developers can input information or queries, and LLMs can generate detailed explanations or documentation snippets, helping to maintain thorough and up-to-date documentation.
  • Code Refactoring Suggestions: LLMs can provide suggestions for code refactoring, helping developers improve the structure, readability, and efficiency of their code. This can lead to better-maintained and more scalable software.
  • Learning and Assistance for Beginners: LLMs can serve as educational tools, assisting novice programmers in understanding coding concepts, syntax, and best practices. They can answer queries, provide examples, and offer guidance on various programming tasks.
  • Natural Language Interface for Coding: LLMs can act as a natural language interface for coding, allowing developers to interact with code using plain language. This is particularly beneficial for those who may not be proficient in a specific programming language but still need to perform coding-related tasks.
  • Code Translation: LLMs can aid in translating code between programming languages. Developers can express their requirements in natural language, and LLMs can generate equivalent code in a different programming language, promoting interoperability.

LLMs for all:

Let’s now delve into the other wide-ranging applications of LLMs:

1- Natural Language Processing (NLP)

LLMs are part of the broader field of NLP, where they perform tasks such as text summarization, and condensing extensive passages into concise summaries. Additionally, they demonstrate proficiency in sentiment analysis, comprehending and evaluating sentiments expressed in textual content.

Furthermore, LLMs enhance the accuracy and efficiency of machine translation, enabling seamless communication across languages. Their question-answering capabilities facilitate precise responses to user queries, revolutionizing information retrieval.

2- Content Creation

In content creation, LLMs are essential tools with versatile capabilities. They contribute to creative writing by generating a variety of text formats, such as poems, code, scripts, musical compositions, emails, and letters. Additionally, LLMs demonstrate their proficiency in dialogue generation, creating realistic and engaging conversations for applications like chatbots and virtual assistants.

3- Education and Training

LLMs play a pivotal role in shaping the future of education and training. They support personalized learning experiences by tailoring educational content for students and employees. Additionally, LLMs aid in the development of training materials, creating engaging and informative resources. As a feedback mechanism, these models provide constructive feedback on written work, enhancing the learning process.

4- Customer Service

LLMs enhance issue resolution quality and efficiency by comprehending customer queries, thereby improving the overall customer experience. Additionally, these models provide personalized recommendations, tailoring suggestions to individual preferences.

5- Research and Discovery

LLMs prove invaluable with their pattern recognition capabilities, enabling the analysis of extensive text datasets and the identification of intricate patterns and trends. Their contribution extends to diverse scientific fields such as medicine, science, and social science, underscoring their potential to significantly advance knowledge and understanding.

Limitations of LLMs:

LLMs exhibit limitations that warrant consideration across different dimensions. First, there is a susceptibility to biases inherent in the training data, emphasizing the need for awareness and concerted efforts to mitigate biases in their applications.

Second, the decision-making process of LLMs may lack transparency, potentially impacting trust in specific applications. Ongoing research is actively addressing this concern to enhance the interpretability of LLMs.

Lastly, the deployment and operation of LLMs come with high costs, posing accessibility challenges for certain users due to financial constraints. Recognizing and addressing these limitations is crucial for fostering responsible and inclusive use of LLMs in various contexts.

The Role of Prompts:

A “prompt” refers to the input provided to the model to generate a desired output. Creating good prompts for Large Language Models (LLMs) is like an art that needs clear and precise instructions.

To make these models work well, you have to give them specific and clear prompts that explain what you want. Using simple and clear language with clear instructions helps the model understand what it needs to do. Also, giving extra information in the prompts helps the models give better and more fitting responses.

It’s important to try different prompts and make them better based on what the model learns. Finding the right balance between being specific and flexible in your prompts helps the models understand and respond well to different things people ask, making the whole process of creating prompts really important for using these powerful language models.

Wrap Up!

In conclusion, while LLMs present incredible potential for revolutionizing various aspects of our lives, it’s crucial to be aware of their limitations. The continuous development of these models promises increased sophistication, paving the way for tackling even more complex tasks. As the field of artificial intelligence evolves, the future holds exciting possibilities for the continued advancement of large language models.

website needs and budget

How to Speed Up A WordPress Website?

If you talk about web performance optimization, then improving page loading time should be number one on your To-Do list. Today, fast is everything and website speed is no longer a luxury instead, it’s a necessity. Sitting in front of the computer while staring at a blank screen, and waiting for a WordPress website to load fully and appear in front of you is a bad user experience.

In this article, you are going to learn the perks of having a fast website, how to identify that your website is slow, and then finally some of the ways which can help you get a fast loading WordPress website.


How to Choose A WordPress Page Builder?

Whenever you set up a WordPress website, one of the earliest challenges is to figure out the look and feel of it. You start looking for themes but chances are they do not cater to your customized site requirements. You might end up coding a particular feature yourself only if you’re a coding fanatic. But what if you have a non-technical background? That’s where WordPress Page Builders come in handy.

person typing on laptop computer

How to Make Money With WordPress?

Back in the days, when WordPress was introduced to the tech world some people speculated about the ability of an open-source script despite being all-free. Turned out that it not only revolutionized the writing experience but with time it emerged as a robust website developing software.

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How to Be A Rockstar WordPress Designer?

WordPress web design can be sometimes confusing, especially if you’re just getting started with this career path. You might have a hard time understanding the tasks that are segregated between WordPress developers and designers.

The role of WordPress designers and developers is often mixed and clients also tend to interchange them. However, to be a master in both paths, one should have a lot of skill set and experience in the fields. So, it is difficult for a WP developer to be a pro at designing, and similarly for a WP designer to be a good developer is also very difficult. Usually, designers do have a basic knowledge about developers and vice versa, but it does not replace the need of the other in the WordPress community. Thus, differentiating the role of the two is very essential.

Let’s understand these two roles and then dig further deep into tips and tricks that could help you become a rockstar WordPress designer.

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How to Create A WordPress Staging Site?

We all must have heard about prototypes of various products. According to Wikipedia, “A prototype is an early sample, model, or release of a product built to test a concept or process.” Before launching a product for the public to use, its prototype is first made and evaluated so that it turns out to be the best for the people.

As with prototypes, you can refine and validate your designs so your brand can release the right products. Similarly, in web development, a staging site fulfills the role of a prototype. Let us dig into that more.

website needs and budget

How to Create Long Form Content in WordPress?

Content is the master of any website. When it comes to driving audience (engagement) to any website, content plays a vital role in this regard. Since there is a lot of competition around, to stand out from the rest, the content of the website should be in-depth and of good quality that is capable enough to attract audiences.

Content can either be short-formed or long-formed.

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How to Select A WordPress Theme?

Whenever someone visits your WordPress website, the first thing that gets noticed is its appearance. This comes as a default attribute since anything that looks visually appealing gathers the most attention from the human brain. The same applies to a WordPress site as well. Dull, boring, and slow running websites will automatically divert traffic to your competitor websites and I’m sure you will not want it to happen. Therefore, after setting up a WordPress website you should always pay heed to what theme you’re going to use.

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